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A Monthly Publication on Mollusks and Marine Life 

$3.00 March, 1985 Volume 17, Number 3 

Fasciolaria tulipa Cozumel, Mexico, 10 m depth. 
Photo by Ronald L. Shimek 


Only a few people have commented on the use of common 
names for mollusks. Most people I have talked with take little or 
no notice of the common names in the AMU list which has been 
published in SHELLS and SEA LIFE. Most appreciation is 
shown for the systematically arranged Latin names with authors 
and dates. Two serious articles on the proper form for common 
names have appeared in the past few months. One is by Eloise F. 
Potter (Auk, Vol. 101:895-896, October, 1984) and the second, by 
R. Tucker Abbott, appears in this month's READER FORUM 
section. Both argue for capitalization of common names to make 
them stand out in text and I hope that everyone will seriously 
consider the merits. 

I agree that it would be hard to imagine my name written as 
Steven j. long. The major complaint I have arises from many 
years of bibliographical work. It is often very difficult to 
determine scientific names from titles of articles and thereby 
know which to italicize. Even after typing thousands of 
citations I still have trouble recognizing many species names 
positively and the format of the first word capitalized followed 
by capitalized subgenus in parenthesis (if used) and by one or two 
lower case names is often the best clue. If common names were 
treated exactly the same it would be difficult to differentiate 
between Cadlina modesta and modest cadlina without knowing 
in advance which was the correct scientific name. Of course, the 
name endings can give a clue — but not always. If the first letter 
of each word of a common name is capitalized uniformly, there 
should be little confusion with scientific names and recognition 
becomes easier. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE will try to follow this standard until a 
better argument comes along. Common names will be capitalized 
only when the first appearance of each common name follows 
immediately after the Latin name, author and date. Subsequent 
usages may be with only the capitalized common name. Names 
introduced without the scientific name adjacent will all be 
treated as common nouns in lower case. We welcome your 

Reprints may be purchased by the author at $1.00 each plus 
postage provided they are ordered prior to publication. Extra 
copies of back issues may be purchased, at the same rates, by the 
authors (subject to availability). Reprinting color is very 
expensive (almost as expensive as the original printing) — when 
the copies are gone; they are gone! 

90 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 


Volume 17 Contents Number 3 



R. Tucker Abbott, Eugene V. Coan 
NOTES FROM HANS BERTSCH: A pair of yonder miters: 

Mitra mitra and M. papalis. 94 

Haminoea elegans. 

Beatrice E. Winner 97 

DEALING WITH DEALERS: Should dealers have private 

collections? David DeLucia 98 

IN MEMORIAM: Faye Ballou de Montano 1907-1984. 

F.G. Hochberg 99 

Have shells, will travel. 

Ed Womack 103 

A serendipity nudibranch. 

Wesley M. Farmer 107 


WHAT IS IT? 110 


9 S£ ttKB 



J UL 1986 





Pam Scott, Joseph Rosewater 
Nudibranch with a lion's mane. 

David W. Behrens 114 


Schedule: Shows & Conventions 



formerly the OPISTHOBRANCH 

Editorial Staff 

Managing Editor Steven J. Long 

Assistant Editor Sally Bennett 

Contributing Editor Hans Bertsch 

Photographic Editor .... David K. Mulliner 
Contributing Editor Tom Rice 

Editorial Review Board 

R. Tucker Abbott David W. Behrens 

Hans Bertsch Kerry B. Clark 

Walter O. Cernohorsky Malcolm Edmunds 

Eugene V. Coan Terrence Gosliner 

Michael T. Ghiselin James R. Lance 

George L. Kennedy T.E. Thompson 
William G. Lyons 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE was formerly known as 
magazine is open to articles and notes on any 
aspect of malacology or related marine life. 
Articles submitted for publication are subject to 
editorial board review. Articles should be 
submitted typed and double-spaced. For 

additional information send for free booklet 
"Suggestions for Contributors". 

We undertake no responsibility for unsolicited 
material sent for possible inclusion in the 
publication. No material submitted will be 
returned unless accompanied by return postage 
and packing. Authors will receive 10 free 
reprints of their article. Additional reprints may 
be purchased. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE ISSN 0747-6078 is 
published monthly for $24 per year by Steven J. 
Long & Sally Bennett, 505 E. Pasadena, Phoenix, 
AZ 85012. Second-Class Postage Paid at 
Phoenix, AZ. POSTMASTER: Send address 
changes to SHELLS and SEA LIFE, 505 E 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. Telephone (602) 
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Send change of address 6 weeks in advance. 
Charge to remail issue for any reason $350. 
Sample copies $350 each postpaid. Rates subject 
to change without notice. 
© Copyright Steven Long & Sally Bennett 1985 


Crazy Popular Names by Scientists Common, vernacular or 
English names for shells are necessary in many forms of 
communication — popular magazine articles, beginners' or 
children's books on sealife, congressional hearings on endangered 
species, TV shows on ocean life, and among novice shell 
collectors. Even our newest shell postage stamps have no other 
names than "Lightning Whelk" or "New England Neptune." The 
general public recognizes a Chambered Nautilus, a Pink Conch or 
Hardshell Clam. Most sea shell collectors are familiar with most 
of the popular names used in my books — such as, Bleeding Tooth 
Nerite, Emerald Nerite, Angel Wing, Common Blue Mussel, Tulip 
Mussel, and Calico Scallop. 

Common names are the communication bridge between the 
novice or non-sheller and the more sophisticated collector who 
has mastered the "lingo" of taxonomy, the Latin names of the 
genus and species. Given a choice, all malacologists and most 
readers of SHELLS and SEA LIFE will use the scientific names. 

A few days ago I received a letter from a prominent editor of a 
nature magazine stating, "Now I realize that some professional 
biologists feel threatened by publications that popularize their 
disciplines. One way to belittle such publications is to create as 
much confusion as possible about common names." 

The list of common names assembled by freshwater 
professional biologists and land snail experts for the American 
Malacological Union is a classic example of how to defeat the 
purpose of common names. Popular writers could not possibly 
use these names without causing confusion and bringing ridicule 
upon the practicality of common names. 

Let's use a few examples (and remember that the AMU follows 
the fish people by not capitalizing common names — i.e., they 
write "orange cowrie" not "Orange Cowrie"; see my article on 
"Non-cap Poops" in the COA bulletin). 

Here are some official AMU names — bleeding-tooth, 
slippershell, f anshell, narrow catspaw, round combshell, western 
hornshell, winged mapleleaf. Not too bad, but guess what? 
These are freshwater unio mussels! They are not talking about 
Crepidula, Pinna, Plicatula, Glycymeris and Cerithidea. 

Let's take a few more AMU common names and use them in a 
sentence. "While walking on the Ohio college ellipse I spotted a 
long-solid, ellipse with two broken rays and a rainbow." What 
good is this sentence when it is trying to communicate that "While 
walking on the Ohio college ellipse I spotted Fusconaia 

92 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

sub rotund at a ^ an Actinonaias ellipsiformis, with two Lampsillis 
reeviana and a Villosa irisT There are much better common 
names possible for these freshwater mussels — ones that can be 
recognized as common names, are easily remembered and are 
associated with the scientific name. Surely Ellipse-formed Unio, 
Reeve's Lampsile, and the Iris Creek Unio would do better. 

There also seems to be a fetish to rid our language of historical, 
well-known surnames. The AMU freshwater list won't speak of 
a Kennedy's Anodon, it's a western floater. There's no Buckley's 
Elliptio, it's a Florida shiny spike (this is not a new railroad spike 
found on the tracks at Orlando). There are 30 species of elliptio 
unios in the list, but they have different "generic common 
names." Some are called lance, butterfly, spike, elephant ear, 
slabshell, spinymussel and one is called, thank goodness, an 
elliptio. Even though Elliptio complanatus is the commonest unio 
in the East, it is called the eastern elliptio, not the Common 
Eastern Elliptio. 

Some common names have been taken from illiterate clam 
fishermen. These names are used only locally, and include such 
names as floater, spike, highnut, clubshell and bloof er. They do 
not belong in modern popular literature, no more than do we use 
the local names pis-clam or nannynose for the Softshell Clam. 

The list of land shells is almost as bad, and one I would never 
use in preparing my forthcoming "Compendium of Land Shells." 
We don't need scientists trying to invent new words for the 
layperson if they don't understand the rudiments of common, 
vernacular names. I doubt if the AMU list will gain much 
acceptance, although the marine shells and freshwater 
gastropods are fairly good. Perhaps the COA could do better in 
the field of layman communications. — Dr. R. Tucker Abbott, 
P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 32902-2255 

Format for Synonymies I was a little distressed with two 
things about the Vokes article [S&SL Jj6(10):160-161] as it came 
out. The first sentence in the last column seems to be wrong. It 
says "incorrectly referred" whereas it probably meant to say 
"correctly." [You are right — the error was not caught in galley 
— my apologies.] Secondly, I am pleased to see that a synonymy 
was included, presumably at my suggestion, but it is hard to 
follow. The first line should probably have been in boldface, 
with everything else indented under it. The entry "Ocenebra 
peasei" should probably have said, "auctt." The next entry is 
unnecessary. The last entry is a complete puzzle. I have no idea 
what it means. — Dr. Eugene Coan, 891 San Jude Ave., Palo Alto, 
CA 94306 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 93 


A pair of yonder miters: Mitra mitra and M- papalis 

These carnivorous mollusks are not just over there in the Indo- 
Pacific, they may also occur over here, in the eastern Pacific. 
Mitra mitra (Linnaeus, 1758) is known from throughout the Indo- 
Pacif ic f aunal region, from eastern Africa to Hawaii, including 
southern Japan, the Marshall Islands and Polynesia (scott, 1979; 
kay, 1979). In the eastern Pacific, this species has been reported 
from offshore islands (the Galapagos) and the west American 
mainland (Costa Rica, Panama and Colombia) (sphon, 1976; cosel, 

1977; EMERSON, 1978; EMERSON, 1983). 

Mitra papalis (Linnaeus, 1758) is reported from various local- 
ities throughout the Indo-Pacific (east Africa, the Ryukyu and 
southern Japanese islands, Polynesia and Hawaii) and from the 
eastern Pacific (Clipperton Island) (hertlein, 1937; scott, 1979; 

KAY, 1979; EMERSON, 1983). 

It is not typical for Indo-Pacific species to occur in the eastern 
Pacific. The species that occur in both faunal regions made its 
way across the vast mid-Pacific waters that usually serve as a 
barrier preventing the easy dispersal of organisms across the 
entire far-flung Pacific basin. However, in surpassing the deep 
water barrier they are using only the same dispersal mechanisms 
that allow Indo-Pacific organisms to be distributed from Africa 
to Japan and to Hawaii: as drifting larvae or as eggs, larvae, or 
adults attached to floating debris. 

These two species of miters occur in Hawaii; I have found 
them off Waikiki on sandy bottoms between 60 and 70 feet deep. 
I have also seen Mitra mitra off Makua at 135 feet deep. One boat 
dive off Waikiki was especially memorable because I found both 
species. Apparently both M. mitra and M. papalis occur fairly 
commonly on sandy bottomed areas, although most miters are 
usually associated with hard substrates. 

Shells of the Mitridae have a wide variation in size, shape and 
color. One characteristic feature is the well-developed series of 
folds or plaits in the columella. Mitra mitra and M. papalis are 
immediately distinguished from other miters by their white shell 
color mottled with brilliant reddish blotches. Mitra mitra (Fig. 1) 
tends to have orangish to red-orange maculations, whereas M. 
papalis (Fig. 2) has darker red-brown markings. The shell shapes 
are quite distinctive. The larger "episcopal miter" (to 7 inch 
length) has a smooth shell with indented sutures, whereas the 
smaller "papal miter" (to about 6 inch length) has fine spiral 
grooving and distinctly coronate sutures. 

94 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

Figure 1. Mitra mitra 

Photo by Larry Derr, Napa, California. 

Figure 2. Living Mitra mitra, showing 
siphon and white flesh of the animal's 
body. Photo by Hans Bertsch 

Figure 3. Mitra papalis, 65 feet deep, 
off Waikiki. Photo by Hans Bertsch 


%: **M> 


Although there have been numerous re- 
ports on Hawaiian miters (e.g., SALISBURY 
1978, 1979 & 1981), not much is known about 
the biology of these species. There is one 
report (lock, 1876) that Mitra mitra eats 
sipunculans in the Coral Sea Basin. If 
this is true, this could be an excellent 
ecological reason for not collecting the 
species: sipunculans are major burrowers 
and destroyers of coral skeletons! Pro- 
tecting this miter may protect coral reefs. 

The radula is rachiglossate — 3 teeth 
per transverse row. Both Mitra mitra and 
M. papalis (Figs. 4 & 5) have a central 
rachidian tooth with 5 cusps and elongate 
lateral teeth with a series of cusps that 
decrease in size peripherally. Salisbury 
and Kawamoto (1980) presented scanning 
electron micrographs of these radulae. 

Figure 4. Radula of Mitra mitra 
(after Salisbury and Kawamoto, 1980). 

Figure 5. Radula of Mitra papalis 
(after Salisbury and Kawamoto, 1980) 

The next time you are underwater and 
see Mitra mitra or M. papalis walking 
along the bottom of the ocean, please 
don't collect them. Watch what they are 
doing and tell me what they are eating. 
Feeding observations must be done care- 
fully, documenting the animal approach- 
ing the prey and actual ingestion. Be 
careful of aquarium observations, be- 
cause those may just tell you of abnormal 
conditions — when an animal is starved 
and out of its normal habitat it may well 
eat anything edible you give it! 

Cross, E.R. 1967. Meet Mitra papalis 
(Linnaeus). Hawaiian Shell News J_5- 
(4): 7. 

Emerson, W.K. 1978. Mollusks with Indo- 
Pacific faunal affinities in the eastern 
Pacific Ocean. Nautilus, 92(2):91-96. 

Emerson, W.K. 1983. New records of pro- 
sobranch gastropods from Pacific Pan- 
ama. Nautilus, 97(4):1 19-123. 

Hertlein, L.G. 1937. A note on some spe- 
cies of marine mollusks occurring in 
both Polynesia and the western Ameri- 
cas. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 78(2): 303- 

Kay, E.A. 1979. Hawaiian marine shells. 
Reef and shore fauna of Hawaii Sec- 
tion 4: Mollusca. Bishop Museum Spec. 
Publ., 64(4): 652 p. 

Lock, L. 1976. Mollusc feeding habits. 
Australian Shell News, (9): 2. 

Salisbury, R. 1978. Little known miters of 
Hawaii. Hawaiian Shell News, 26(9): 9. 

Salisbury, R. 1979. Rare miter in Hawai- 
ian collection. Hawaiian Shell News, 
21(7): 5. 

Salisbury, R. 1981. Out of the deep —the 
nymph miter. Hawaiian Shell News, 
29(4): 6. 

Salisbury, R. & R. Kawamoto 1980. SEM 
studies of the radulae of miters. Ha- 
waiian Shell News, 28(12): 12. 

Scott, I. 1979. A checklist of the miters of 
Samoa. Hawaiian Shell News, 27(8): 7- 

Sphon, G.G. 1976. The Mitridae of the 
Galapagos Islands. Nautilus, 90(2): 63- 

Dr. Hans Bertsch, 4444 W. Pt. Loma Blvd. 
#83, San Diego, CA 92107 

Cosel, R.V. 1977. First record of Mitra 
mitra (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda: 
Prosobranchia) on the Pacific coast of 
Colombia, South America. Veliger. 19- 
(4): 422-424. 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

Haminoea elegans 

Beatrice E. Winner 

342 Southwind Drive 101 
North Palm Beach, FL 33409 

Shells of Haminoea elegans 

On May 14, 1984, whilst snorkling in Lake Worth, Florida I 
came across a colony of Haminoea elegans Turton and Kingston, 
1830, and their egg masses. I gathered 18 specimens and took 
them home in.hopes that they would lay eggs. They obligingly 
laid eggs in a somewhat communal manner (photo below). The 
egg ribbons were 54 mm long, 5 mm wide, and 1 mm thick. 
Although they laid eggs on filamentous algae in the field and I 
had supplied same, they chose to lay the eggs on the side of the 

Twenty-four hours after the eggs were laid, spinning of the 
larvae commenced. Veligers were present in 72 hours. On May 
25th egg masses were laid again, but they were very small 
averaging 6-9 mm. 

Haminoea elegans are hermaphroditic, each animal having 
both male and female reproductive organs. Fertilization 
according to Perrier and Fisher (1914) is by spermatophore 
(sperm pockets) with long tails used for the journey to the female. 

Photo below — communal egg laying 



SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 


Should dealers have private collections? 

David DeLucia, 7 Sunset Hill Drive, Branford, CT06405 

Most shell dealers started off as collectors, yet a surprising 
number have no private collection at all. Others only collect one 
family, extremes of size, or exceptional specimens of certain rare 
shells. Does it matter whether or not a dealer has a private 
collection? How does this affect you, the consumer? 

Well, it depends on you own collecting needs. If you want to 
put together a general collection of mostly common shells, then it 
doesn't make any difference if you patronize a dealer with a 
private collection or not. However, if you desire rarely available 
material of little know families, your dealer may be your worst 
competitor. Many scarce species are only intermittently 
available on a one-of-a-kind basis, so you will have to wait until 
at least two specimens come in before the desired item is offered 
for sale. Even if that happens, one of the two shells almost 
always is superior to the other, and guess where that specimen 
goes? In all fairness, most dealers will do their utmost to find 
that special esoteric item for your collection, but waiting for the 
"next one in line" can be exasperating. 

Looking now at the positive side of the issue, I find that most 
dealers with private collections are more knowledgeable about 
nomenclature. They want the shells in their own collection to 
have the correct name, and thus will be careful with regard to 
synonymy, "new names", etc. Such parties generally list fewer 
misidentified shells than those with no collection at all, as 
they've discovered through experience what's wrong in their own 
collection, and can pass on this information to their customers. 
Furthermore, dealers that specialize in collecting one or two 
families often become experts in these groups, and can offer the 
collector a wealth of practical knowledge that is not found in any 

Even taking into account the above advantages, I still have 
enormous respect for the dealer with no private collection at all. 
It takes a great deal of maturity and self-control not to put aside 
the best and prettiest shells in each shipment for one's own use. 
The ultimate goal of any shell dealer should be to provide the 
best possible specimens to the public, taking as few shells as 
possible from the inventory for any reason. A dealer with a 
strong collecting drive creates a conflict of interests, and the loss 
is the customers. 

98 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 


Faye Ballou de Montano 1907-1984 

F.G. Hochberg 

Faye Howard with duPont Trophy for Best Exhibit, 1970 Santa Barbara Shell Show 

The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History recently lost 
one of the moving forces behind the development of the 
Invertebrate Zoology Department. Delia Faye Ballou was born 
in Crumpler, North Carolina, on February 15, 1907. She was 
born at home in the same house where her father Napoleon 
Franklin had been born. When she was ten her family moved to 
California. Faye graduated from Anaheim Union High School 
in 1924. She attended Fullerton City College and later the 
University of California, Berkeley, where a chance introduction 
to shells by John Jones, a curio shop owner and shell dealer, 
turned into a life-long avocation and enduring passion. 

Using her married name, Faye B. Howard, she engaged in 
private research in conchology from 1932 until shortly before her 
death. Faye acknowledged a number of malacologists who 
helped her get started, among them are Emery and Elsie Chace, 
Howard Hill, Myra Keen, Allyn Smith and Rudy Stohler. 
Starting in 1955 she made a total of 28 field trips to Mexico, 
Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. During her 
travels she discovered a number of new species. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 99 

Faye's first donation to the Museum, a collection of shells from 
the Gulf of California, was made in 1960, only a year after the 
Department of Invertebrate Zoology was formed. In 1961 she 
was appointed a Research Associate in Conchology. Relying on 
personal resources she funded the position of Assistant in 
Conchology at the museum from September 1961 to January 1968. 
During the same period she organized, financed, and led six 
major expeditions to west Mexico to collect shells. Faye's 
extensive collections have contributed significantly to our 
understanding of the mollusks of Mexico. Numerous profes- 
sional malacologists referred to her collections during the course 
of their studies on the distributions and systematics of eastern 
Pacific mollusks. A number of Faye's photographs of living 
molluscs appeared in Myra Keen's book Sea Shells of Tropical 
West America . 

Faye moved to Santa Barbara in 1962 when her first husband 
retired. Shortly thereafter they purchased the ocean front home 
of former Santa Barbara Museum Director V.L. Vanderhoof. 
Her home in Hope Ranch soon became a mecca for shell collectors 
up and down the coast. Following the disastrous fire at the 
Museum in April of 1962 Faye directed the recovery effort that 
brought in replacement specimens from institutions and private 
collections around the country. As a direct result of her efforts 
during the 1960's the department acquired the nucleus of a large 
shell collection. Faye often commented that the fire was a 
blessing in disguise because it destroyed many dataless and 
scientifically worthless specimens. 

Ruth French, Faye Howard and Ramon Montano in 1968 

if .. :1lilllllM 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

With the impetus of Faye's enthusiasm and support, the Santa 
Barbara Malacological Society was founded in July, 1962 and is 
still active. Faye was a charter member and served as interim 
President until the first elections were held. In July, 1967, the 
Society issued the first volume of the Tabulata. The journal 
solicited contribution from amateur, student and professional 
conchologists and malacologists. Scientific papers and articles 
of general interest on mollusks and related subjects were invited, 
with a regional emphasis on the eastern Pacific. Faye helped 
organize the fledgeling journal and served on the Editorial Board 
from 1967 to 1974 when publication was suspended. 

Faye participated in a number of regional shell shows. She 
promoted and helped support the activities of several other shell 
clubs. She was a member of the Conchological Club of Southern 
California for 54 years, during which time she served as 
Secretary and President. For many years Faye was listed as an 
honorary member. In addition, Faye was also a member of the 
Hawaiian Malacological Society. 

An acknowledged authority on mollusks, Faye specialized in 
shells of the Panamic Province. She wrote a total of 22 
publications under the name of Faye B. Howard, the majority as 
regular contributions to the Tabulata. A wry sense of humor was 
often expressed in her correspondence with other malacologists 
and came out especially in the titles she devised for her papers in 
the Tabulata. 

She described two new species of snails. Four new species of 
snails and one new subspecies were named in her honor. A new 
species also was named for her Churea Expedition to Mexico, [see 
Appendix I]. 

In later years, even with declining health, Faye continued to 
support the Museum. She provided invaluable assistance and 
advice on shells and collections in general. Over the years she 
donated a number of small collections and purchased several 
choice rare shells to add to the growing Department collections. 
In 1977 Faye funded the mollusk cases in the Marine Hall in 
memory of her sons Gerald and Patrick Howard. 

Faye's contributions, support and enthusiasm for shells formed 
the nucleus around which the Invertebrate Zoology Department 
evolved. Her dream of establishing a major center for the study 
of mollusks in Santa Barbara will become a reality, supported by 
her large and valuable collection (estimated at over 15,000 lots) 
and by a bequest which she leaves to the Museum. This legacy 
will forever preserve her memory but will never fill the void she 
leaves behind. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 101 

Acknowledgements: I am grateful to Ramon Montano for allowing access to photo- 
graphs and personal files on Faye's family history. This brief tribute benefitted from 
comments and information provided by Myra Keen, Gale Sphon and Helen DuShane. 
Paul Scott helped assemble the bibliography and assisted in the final preparation of the 

Appendix I 

A. Taxa named by Faye Howard 

Trivia (Pusula) elsiae Howard & Sphon, 1960 (October) 

(named in honor of Elsie Chace) 
Pyrene aureola Howard, 1963 (May) 

(name changed to P. auromexicana by Howard, 1963 (June)) 

B. Taxa named in honor of Faye Howard 

Acmaea turveri fayae Hertlein, 1958 

(Bull. So. Cal. Acad. Sci., 56(3): 107-1 12) 
Anachis (tCostoanachis) fayae Keen, 1971 

(Sea Shells of Tropical West America, p. 579) 
Chromodoris fayae Lance, 1968 

(Trans. S. Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., J_5_(2):l-13) 
Nassarius howardae Chace, 1958 

(Trans. S. Diego Soc. Nat. Hist., L2(20):333-334) 
Pterotyphis (Tripterotyphis) fayae Keen & Campbell, 1964 

(Veliger, 7(l):46-57) 

C. Taxon acknowledging name of Expedition to Mexico directed by Faye Howard 

Terebra (Strioterebrum) churea Campbell, 1964 (Veliger, 6(3): 132- 138) 

Appendix II: Chronological Bibliography of Faye B. Howard 

Howard, Faye B. & Gale G. Sphon, Jr. 1960. A new Panamic species of Trivia. Veliger, 

3_(2):41-43, pi. 7. (October) 
Howard, Faye B. 1962. Egg-laying in Fusitriton or&gonensis (Redfield). Veliger, 

4(3):160, pi. 39. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1963a. Notes on a Mitrella (Mollusca: Gastropoda) from the Gulf of 

California. Veliger, 5_(4): 149- 160. (April) 
Howard, Faye B. 1963b. Descriptions of a new Pyrene from Mexico (Mollusca - 

Gastropoda). Santa Barbara Mus. Nat. Hist., Occ. Pap., No. 7:1-12, pi. 1. (May) 
Howard, Faye B. 1963c. New name for a Pyrene f rom Mexico (Mollusca -Gastropoda). 

Santa Barbara Mus. Nat. Hist., Occ. Pap., No. 7 (Supplement):l. (June) 
Howard, Faye B. 1967a. Just the facts, ma'am! ( — or who the heck had this bright idea?). 

Tabulata, J_(l):l-2. (July) 
Howard, Faye B. 1967b. Extreme ranges of two Panamic bivalves. Tabulata, I(2):7. 

Howard, Faye B. 1968a. Is that right? — or left? Tabulata, I(3):10. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1968b. Molluscan relationships. Tabulata, i(6):2-3, 9. (October) 
Howard, Faye B. 1969. Molluscan relationships. Tabulata, 2(1):10-12. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1970a. Emery P. and Elsie M Chace — Keepers of the Tin Book. 

Tabulata, 3_(1):11-15. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1970b. Myra Keen and the singing snails. Tabulata, 3_(3):3-8. (July) 
Howard, Faye B. 1970c. Luck on Lighthouse Island. Tabulata, 3_(4):8. (October) 
Howard, Faye B. 1971a. (The story curves can tell!) Tabulata, 4(3):8. (July) 
Howard, Faye B. 1971b. Trip to Newport Bay and Reef Point. Tabulata, 4(4):3-7. 
Howard, Faye B. 1972a. Henry Hemphill. Tabulata, 5_(l):3-4. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1972b. Notes on the Panamic Province. Tabulata, 5_(1):8. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1972c. Addendum: Trip to Reef Point. Tabulata, 5„(1):17. (January) 
Howard, Faye B. 1972d. Then and now. Tabulata, 5_(3):17-26. (July) 
Howard, Faye B. 1972e. How we have grown. Tabulata, 5_(4):8, 23. (October). 
Howard, Faye B. & Ruth C. French. 1973. S. Stillman Berry — Compleat Amateur. 

Tabulata, £(2):3-6, 18-22. (April) 
Howard, Faye B. 1974. Sea shells as archaeologists. Tabulata, 7(3):62-64. (July) 

F.G. Hochberg, Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Santa Barbara Museum of 
Natural History, 2559 Puesta del Sol Road, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 

102 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

Have Shells, will travel. Edwin B. Womack 

"You'll come to my classroom?" the teacher asked in surprise. 
"And show color slides? And bring shells the children can touch ? 
Are you sure you don't mind?" I tried to assure the teacher that 
telling children about shells and the remarkable animals which 
make them is not a bother; it is a privilege. 

For the past 14 years, I have taken a "road show" to different 
public school classes, mostly kindergarten and elementary grades. 
Usually, I take along a couple of sets of slides, my traveling shell 
collection, the display board, a slide projector with zoom lense, 
and an extension cord. (If you are to show slides, never leave 
home without an extension cord.) 

I try to arrange with the teacher to arrive at the end of recess 
or lunch period so that I can set up while the children are out of 
the way. It makes setting up easier, and it avoids interrupting 
class activities. 

The display board is a piece of half-inch plywood 24 inches 
wide and 40 inches long, with a handle on the back for easier 
carrying. It is propped up on two short pieces of 2 x 4 (about 4- 
1/2 or 5 inches high), which have been cut at a 15° angle so that 
the board will slope toward the children. Each prop has a piece 
of quarter inch dowell in the top which matches a hole in the 
back corners of the board. This keeps the props from slipping 
out and spilling shells all over the floor. The board is covered 
with a plain colored cloth to provide background color and some 
padding for the shells. (For years, I have used my wife's dark 
green table cloth.) 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 


The shells travel to school in a heavy cardboard box which is 
17 inches wide, 24 inches long, and six inches deep. It is divided 
into 30 compartments of various sizes and shapes to hold and 
protect as many different shells as possible, yet be carried easily. 
(See photo) When loaded, the box weighs about 17 pounds. 
Making such a box is not difficult if you use your imagination, 
but having a hot glue gun to glue dividers in place is a real help. 

My traveling collection includes 34 shells which allow me to 
demonstrate the five main classes of shells, different habitats, 
different forms of locomotion, and different human uses for 
shells. (See notes for details.) Though the collection could 
include any assortment which would demonstrate these things, I 
try to select shells according to three criteria. First, they are 
shells which the children might see in their own locality or find 
pictured in books which are readily available to public schools. 
Second, some shells are included because they might be especially 
interesting or raise questions. (A carrier shell with bivalves, 
stones and a large barnacle attached; gastropods displaying a 
variety of opercula; a chiton dried in alcohol so that the animal is 
visible; a Cassis cornuta which can be blown; shells with data slips 
inside or classification numbers printed on). Third, and most 
important, all of the shells are expendable. Touching is an 
important way of learning, so I take only shells which the 
children can handle. This does not mean that the shells are a 
poor grade. All would be rated at least good, if not fine. After 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

all, who wants to look at junk? But they are all duplicates which I am willing to risk in 
the cause of education. 

With elementary children, the presentation usually goes something like this. I 
outline what I plan to do and set two ground rules: 1) I will not talk while they are 
talking, and 2) they must be careful with the shells, because if the shells are broken I 
will not have them to show to other children. Then, I show a short series of slides (five 
or six minutes) which describes sea shells as houses from the sea and illustrates that 
these homes come in different shapes and are decorated with different colors and 
patterns. (More about this in another article.) Then, using the shells on the display 
board, I point out briefly (the younger the children, the briefer it is) the five classes of 
shells, where mollusks live, how they move around, and how human beings have used 
shells. The latter always includes blowing the Cassis cornuta horn. After I field some 
questions and comments, the teacher divides the class into small groups so that the 
children can come to handle the shells and ask questions. 

Usually, teachers are afraid the shells will be broken, and I must admit I shared that 
fear at first. I'm still careful, but no longer afraid. The risk really is rather slight. In 
14 years, only two shells have been broken. The tip of a Terebra maculata was broken 
when the shell rolled off the table, and a delicate purple bubble shell {Janthina 
janthina) was crushed when a little girl accidentally set a triton's trumpet {Charonia 
tritonis) on top of it. (The little girl's heart was broken too.) Children appreciate the 
beauty and wonder of shells and will be careful if given proper guidance. 

Children also appreciate someone taking time to help them learn about these 
marvelous creatures. Teachers are grateful too. They can't be expected to know 
everything, and they appreciate an amateur malacologist taking time to help children 
learn about mollusks. And you will enjoy it too. What fun it is to see children eager to 
learn, and what a joy it is to read the delightful thank you letter school children write. 
Why don't you try it? I think you'll like it. (And if I can help in any way, please let me 


Shells included in. the traveling collection : Charonia tritonis, Oliva incrassata, Cypraea 
tigris, C. mauritiana, five C. moneta, C. spadicea, Ovula ovum, Nautilus pompilius, 
Dentalium weinkauffi, Lottia gigantea, Megathura crenulata, Cassis cornuta, Xenophora 
robusta, Pecten vogdesi, Mercenaria mercenaria, Terebra maculata, Cryptochiton stelleri, 
Stenoplax conspicua, Haliotis ru/escens, Kelletia kelleti, Tivela stultorum, Janthina 
janthina, Turbo fluctuosus, Mitra mitra, Polinices lewisii, Natica chemnitzi, Conus 
quercinus, Conus textile, C. marmoreus, Murex pecten 

Different classes of molluscs : SCAPHOPODA — Dentalium weinkauffi; POLYPLA- 
COPHORA — Cryptochiton stelleri, Stenoplax conspicua; CEPHALOPODA — Nautilus 
pompilius: BIVALVIA — Pecten vogdesi, Mercenaria mercenaria, Tivela stultorum; 
GASTROPODA — Cypraea tigris, Mitra mitra, Conus textile, Terebra maculata, et. al. 

Different habitats : Intertidal rocks — Lottia gigantia, Stenoplax conspicua, Turbo 
fluctuosus; Intertidal sand — Tivela stultorum; subtidal rocks — Megathura crenulata, 
Haliotis rufescens; lava rocks with wave action — Cypraea mauritiana; clean sand — 
Oliva incrassata, Terebra maculata, Mitra mitra; mud — Polinices lewisii, Natica chemnitzi; 
shallow coral reef — Cypraea moneta; coral reef in deeper water — Cypraea tigris, 
Charonia tritonis; soft coral — Ovula ovum; open ocean — Nautilus pompilius, Janthina 

Different types of locomotion : crawling — Cypraea tigris, Mitra mitra, Murex pecten, 
other gastropods; digging — Tivela stultorum, Mercenaria Mercenaria; swimming — 
Nautilus pompilius, Pecten vogdesi; floating — Janthina janthina; little movement — 
Dentalium weinkauffi 

Different human uses : food — Cassis cornuta; Haliotis rufescens, Stenoplax conspicua, 
Tivela stultorum; musical instrument or signal — Cassis cornuta, Charonia tritonis; money 

— Cypraea moneta, Mercenaria mercenaria; jewelry or ornamentation — Cypraea 
moneta, Ovula ovum, Haliotis rufescens; drill — Terebra maculata; "cork" for gourd bottles 

— Terebra maculata; scraper — Mercenaria mercenaria, Megathura crenulata; octopus lure 
(with stone) — Cypraea tigris; dish — Haliotis rufescens; material for fish hooks — 
Haliotis rufescens 

Edwin B. Womack, 901 North F St., Lompoc, CA 93436 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 105 

House of Quality and Service 


1575 NORTH 118th STREET 
WAUWATOSA, Wl 53226 U.S.A. 

Dealer in Fine and Rare Specimen Shells 
of Superior Quality 

The very best shells, at the very best prices 





SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

A Serendipity Nudibranch 

Wesley M. Farmer 

11061 Lea Terrace Drive 
Santee, CA 92071 

Illustrations at right: 
Phyllidiopsis sp. 

Salt water fishing is a favorite sport of mine. On June 16, 
1984, my wife Barbara, daughter Deanna and I boarded the 
"Malihini" along with 53 other fishermen, to fish for yellowtail at 
the Los Coronados Islands, Mexico. 

The "Malihini" was anchored a few hundred yards off the 
leeward side of the north end of South Island, in over 10 fathoms 
of water. The bottom was rocky. For a change of pace, I was 
trying to tempt some of the fish boiling all around the boat, with 
a treble hook on a metal lure. From time to time I let the lure 
settle down a bit on the bottom and then reeled it in through the 
water. After one return I noticed a light red-brown animal on 
the tip of one of the hooks. I carefully picked it off the hook, 
and placed it in a styrof oam cup with some sea water, to preserve 
it until we returned home. 

Nudibranchs are one of my favorite subjects, and you can 
imagine my surprise and delight when I reeled one in! I could 
hardly wait to examine it when we got home. 

That evening I became very excited when I saw through my 
camera lens an animal that looked like a cross between a dorid 
and an arminid nudibranch; one with posterior gills and the other 
with sub-mantle lamellae. 

Next day I asked my dentist to x-ray the animal while it was 
still alive, to see if it had a radula. He placed the 14 mm long 
animal on the film and exposed it, there was no radula. 

The specimen is a probably a Phyllidiopsis, because it lacks the 
head tentacles found in Phyllidia. It is a porostome and has no 
radula. I noted a minute open pore, which is the mouth; when 
closed it cannot be detected. The color is grey-brown with a light 
substratum. Some of the cells in the notum are water clear. The 
dorsal surface has 28 low-lying papillae. The mantle is 
spiculated. There are 69 lamellae on the left side and 51 lamellae 
on the right side under the mantle. The rhinophores at the 
anterior end have seven leaves each and pull down into pockets. 

This is the first Phyllidiopsis, I am aware of from these waters. 
My fishing trip yielded an unexpected bonus - a serendipity 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 



Merv Cooper's 



P.O. Box 166, Mt. Hawthorne 

West Australia - Tel. (09) 328-5168 

Send $1.00 for List # 11 

Showrooms 157 Beaufort St., Perth W. Aust. 

Also sell Murex, Voluta, Haliotis, Conus, etc. 

£a QonoRiglia 


The Classic International Shell Magazine 

in colour since 1969 

The most widely distributed bimonthly 

publication on shells, now 32 large size pages 

Prices: Surface mail $14 everywhere 

air mail $20 

(Australia & Polynesia $23) 

Back numbers at the same yearly rates. 

Please inquire about availability. 

Address: Via C Federici, 1 
00147 Rome, Italy 

U.S. Subscription agent: 


505 E. Pasadena 
Phoenix, AZ 85012 

On October 12th-20th, be with 

Merv on a Sea Shell Safari 

to Broom, Australia, home of 

Voluta coniformis, Murex cornicervi, Cypraea azzurea 

and many other rare and common shells. 

For reservations, send $200.00 deposit to 

Merv Cooper's Sea Shell Safari 

P.O. Box 186, Mt. Hawthorn 6016 West Australia 

G. B. Jeffrey 

Specimen Shells, including chitons from the 

Pacific coast of Canada 


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Collectible Shells 
of Southeastern U.S., Bahamas 
& Caribbean by R. Tucker Abbott, Ph.D. 
A Take It to the Beach' Field Guide 
105 beautiful color pages of living animals 
and their shells. 64 pages of coior. 300 
species illustrated. How to clean shells. 
Where to find them. Includes fossils, pond 
and tree snails, as well as sealife. A popu- 
lar new seller retailing for $8.95. Postage 
and state tax are included as a big savings. 

American Malacologists, Inc. 

Publishers of Distinctive Books on Mollusks 
P.O. Box 2255, Melbourne, FL 32902-2255 

Successor to 

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Specimen Shells and Natural History Books 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 


Walter Sage 

Department of Living & Fossil Invertebrates 
American Museum of Natural History 
Central Park West at 79th Street 
New York, NY 10024 

Sharabati, Doreen 1984, Red Sea Shells. 
Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 
128 pp., 49 full color plates. 
Soft cover Order Number 855 $17.95 

The Red Sea, situated at the extreme end of the vast Indo- 
Pacif ic molluscan province, is known to students of mollusks for 
the number of endemic species and populations that are closely 
related to the molluscan inhabitants of nearby waters. This book 
by the author of the useful Saudi Arabian Seashells provides 
excellent illustrations of several hundred gastropods and 
bivalves, two cephalopods, two chitons, and three schaphopods 
collected in the Red Sea by the author and her friends. Voucher 
specimens of most species have been deposited in the British 
Museum (Natural History). Identifications are stated by the 
author to be tentative, pending further collecting and study. 

Introductory material discusses classifying shells, molluscan 
classes, general features of the Red Sea, and particular molluscan 
habitats. Information is also given on collecting and cleaning 
shells, and in labeling a collection. A glossary of terms, 
bibliography, index to common names, and index to scientific 
names is provided. The assistance of many colleagues and 
scientists is acknowledged, including Solene Morris for the 
bivalve section and Nathalie Yonow for the section on 

The bulk of the volume is devoted to the plates and the 
accompanying text. The superb photograps by the author's 
husband should allow for easy comparison of actual specimens to 
plates. The treatment of species includes family placement and 
generic and scientific names with author and date (unless the 
species is identified only to genus level). Size of the specimens 
and habitat information is provided. Living mollusks are not 
shown, except for 18 opisthobranchs. 

It is in this reviewer's opinion unfortunate, that the reader has 
to continually refer to a numbered chart to determine the 
identification of species, but this is admittedly a minor criticism. 
The fine quality and modest price will help ensure that this 
volume is widely used, and the book is highly recomended for 
anyone interested in Indo-Pacific Mollusks. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 



WHAT IS IT? Ed Degginer Photo 25 Indo-Pacific Tridacna sp. 



P.O. Box 643, West Point, CA 95255 

In early December, 1983, Wes Thorson, of Honolulu, Hawaii 
and I arrived in Townsville, Australia. Wes and I have been 
diving and shell collecting together for the past 14 years. Often 
we had talked of making a trip to the Great Barrier Reef, and 
now the talk had become a reality. We were to go aboard the 65 
ft. charter boat, Divemaster, for 8 days of diving and collecting 
out on the Reef. 

First a few words about the Great Barrier Reef in the area out 
from Townsville. It is not a long continuous barrier, but a series 
of small to large reefs separated by miles of open deep water. At 
this time of year most of the reefs are 4 to 6 feet below the 
surface of the water at low tide due to the extreme low tides 
which kill the coral at the lowest fluctuations. The long boat 
ride, (3 to 5 hours) out from the Australian mainland through 
rough water, prohibits the use of a small boat. 

The Divemaster with a crew of three, (skipper, cook, & 
divemaster) is well equipped to handle 12 divers on an extended 
trip. Unlimited air is provided by twin 6.5 cu. ft. Bauer 
compressors. Food and accomodations on our trip were excel- 
lent. The weather was a little on the rough side, but that didn't 
keep us out of the water. We dove on six different reefs, 
Wheeler, Grubb, Coil, Dip, Faraday, and Helix. I made 23 dives 
and was in the water for a total of 21 hours 49 minutes. Watch 
this column in future issues for a look at some of the shells that I 
collected, and the habitats where they were found. 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

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Free price list on request. 
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Coast. Plus unique and beautiful fine art, carvings, 
handcrafted jewelry. Weavings — All related to 
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One of the largest selections of outstanding speci- 
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1306 East Forty-Eighth Street 
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hamaron (718) 258-1274 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 



Dave Behrens photo — Megatebennus bimaculatus 
Central California coast. 

Some thoughts on Live Collecting I've never been one to take 
live shells. I was raised to respect life, no matter what its form, 
so it seemed sort of cruel to just pop a living creature into a 
microwave oven or boiling water, just to have it's shell. I prefer 
to leave that to those who have the stomach for it; the ones who 
could also be ambulance drivers or police officers. 

Sometimes it's really hard for me not to take one of the living 
shells when I see their brilliant patterns, lush colors or perfect 
form. It almost killed me to return to the water the crown conch 
my husband and I found on the beach on Sanibel this last 
Christmas. It was not only perfection itself, but it had a brilliant 
purple, almost violet, aperture. That conch will never know how 
lucky it was. 

No one wants to go shelling with me anymore. I won't let 
anyone else take anything live, either, at least not without an 
arguement and some sulking. Still, sometimes that helps people 
stop and consider why I feel that way. More than one of my 
friends has learned to share my sentiments. 


SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 

I have, fortunately, found others like myself. One of those is 
Alice Anders who lives on Sanibel and is lucky enough to be able 
to spend her days on the beach studying what lives there. Alice 
takes live creatures only to put in one of her many tanks. She's 
saved stranded seahorses from certain death on the beach and has 
been raising a beautiful big red tulip shell [see front cover 
photograph] who glides gracefully over the sand in the tank it 
shares with a multitude of crabs, anemones and shrimp. 

To me, the idea of heaven is to walk slowly up and down a 
sunny beach, stopping only to pick up the pretty dead jingle 
shells, coquinas and wentletraps. Besides, since they're so tiny 
I'm forced into the only exercise my middle-aged thighs get as I 
bend down to get the shells, leaving me with added benefits. 

At any rate, there are many ways to get around my "problem" 
besides picking up dead shells (although lots of them, especially 
the miniatures, are lovely) or by raising the little creatures in 
aquariums. Nudibranchs are fun to watch underwater in their 
own habitat and can be photographed as well. For that matter, 
there are dozens of forms of shell photography and art to explore. 
The study of fossil shells is really an exciting new development 
among collectors and there are species among them yet to be 
discovered. ^ 

I have what I consider to be breathtakingly beautiful shells 
that are that way because someone else took them live so that I 
didn't have to. I couldn't own those shells otherwise, and would 
miss them. But I have learned to appreciate the beauty in those 
shells long dead and I am always developing new interests in my 
search for alternatives to taking live shells. — Pam Scott, 1 1 15 So. 
11th Avenue, St. Charles, IL 60174. 

Dr. Joseph Rosewater Our dear friend and colleague, Joseph 
Rosewater, died of cancer on March 22, 1985 at the Washington 
Hospital Center. We are deeply saddened by Joe's death, and we 
extend our warmest sympathies to his wife, Mary, and their 
children, Cathy, Gail, and Carl. 

Mary asks that, in lieu of flowers, contributions be made to the 
Joseph Rosewater Fellowship Fund which has been established to 
help support students of systematic malacology who come to 
work in the Division of Mollusks. Please make checks payable to 
the Smithsonian Institution and send in care of Drs. Richard 
Houbrick or Clyde Roper. — Dr. Richard S. Houbrick & Dr. Clyde 
F.E. Roper, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, DC 20560 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 113 




Nudibranch with a Lion's Mane 

David W. Behrens, Route 1, Box 70-A, Templeton, CA 93465 

Photographs by Marc Chamberlain 

Melibe leonina (Gould, 1852) is one of the most fascinating 
nudibranchs on the Pacific Coast. While all nudibranchs are 
carnivorous, only Melibe feeds on planktonic prey, primarily 
small crustaceans, rather than sessile animals. Like other species 
of the family Tethyidae, Melibe lacks radula and jaws. The 
species feeds by swinging and casting its greatly expanded 
circular fimbriated buccal hood about in the water in search of 
food (bottom photo, facing page). The prey is swallowed whole, 
while excess water runs out between the double row of marginal 
tentacles or cirri, which act as a strainer. Melibe is most 
commonly found clinging to eel-grass and kelps such as 
Laminaria and Macrocystis, in plankton-rich waters (see Ajeska & 
Nybakken 1976, Veliger J_9(l):19-26). 

The accompanying photographs show Melibe in an interesting, 
and to date undocumented, feeding posture. The photographs, 
taken by Dr. Marc Chamberlain, while diving in kelp off 
Telegraph Cove (south of Port McNeil), Vancouver Island, 
British Columbia, Canada, where Melibe is seasonally abundant. 
The photos suggest that the Melibe were exercising some form of 
feeding strategy to maximize their catch. As seen in the top two 
photos, the Melibe had formed what appears to be a feeding 
circle, oral hoods directed outward, while tails are tightly 
juxtaposed. These aggregations, comprised of very large 
individuals, 20-35 cm in length, blanketed the bottom of the cove. 
In the strong tidal currents of the Johnson's Strait one might 
expect the most optimal feeding position to be facing into the 
oncoming current. One might even speculate that these 
aggregations provide for maximizing reproductive success. In 
light of Melibe's agile nature and swimming ability, their 
behavior here could only be interpreted as intentional, rather 
than haphazard. 

Unlike aeolid nudibranchs the vascular network branching 
within the dorsal processes, probably referred to incorrectly as 
cerata, functions only as respiratory organs and not concurrently 
as a digestive gland. These processes are easily autotomized 
when the animal is irritated or stressed. This behavior, which 
can be compared to an octopus' inking, has been shown as an 
effective defense mechanism against potential predators by 
several other invertebrate species. In this instance, loss of a body 
part provides survival for the individual itself. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 115 


Rates: $4.00 per line - single insert; $3.50 per line 
multiple insert, prepaid. We reserve the right to 
modify copy to fitpaid lines. H Exchange" listings 
are available at the same rates. 

For Sale - Retail 

Rosenthal, 4636 Arrowhead Dr., Apex, NC 27502 

For information write M.L. Chapel, 2002 
Margaret Drive, Wichita Falls, Texas 76306. 

I am disposing of very fine Florida tree snails 
Liguus fasciatus and a few sets of Cuban Polymita 
from my personal collection. Write for free list. 
No dealers please. Archie L. Jones, 8025 SW 62 
Court, Miami, FL 33143. 

Worldwide Specimen Shells. List #19. BRUCE 
BENNARD, 67 Dogwood Acres Dr., Chapel Hill, 
NC 27514 

WORLD WIDE SEA SHELLS for collectors. 
Free Price List. Sea Gems, 2002 Margaret Drive, 
Wichita Falls, Texas, 76306 

BUSINESS CARDS — send sample layout for 
free quote. SHELLS and SEA LIFE, 505 E. 
Pasadena, Phoenix, AZ 85012. 

shells. Free price lists. Keith Hooke; 16 Baldwin 
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PLASTIC BAGS — all types & sizes. Free price 
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SHELLING & FISHING from Marco Island. 
Reasonable rates and good accomodations — 
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JEFFREY N. MC GINN, 19795 Arizona Court, 
Boca Raton, FL 33434 has a wide variety of live 
collected shells from the eastern US, west Mexico 
and the Bahamas to exchange for live collected 
shells from other areas. 


SHELLS & SEA LIFE, 505 E. Pasadena, 
Phoenix, AZ85012. Phone (602) 274-3615. 
Postage and packing extra on all new and used 
books listed here. 

ZP03 Abbott & Sandved Shells in color. 112p., 

illus. HB $15. 

7000 Abbott, R.T. 1954. American Seashells. 1st 

edition. 541 pp., 40 pis. $27. 

7234 Abbott, R.T. 1958. MarineMollusca of Grand 

Cayman Island, British West Indies. 138p. + 5 p. 

illustrations + index Softbound $12.95 

7020 Abbott, R.T. 1973. American Malacologists. 

First edition. 494p. HB. 1975 Supplement, p.495- 

609. Set of two books. $7.50 

ZP01 Abbott, R.T. A guide to field identification. 

Seashells of North America. 280p., 100's of color 

illust. $3.95 

7200 Abbott, R.T. How to Know the American 

Marine Shells, color & B&W. 222 pages, 12 color 

plates. Softbound $3.50 

7208 Abbott, R.T. How to Know the American 

Marine Shells, color & B&W. 222 pages, 12 color 

plates. Softbound used copy $2.50 

ZP11 Abbott, R.T. Kingdom of the Seashell. HB 


7227 Abbott, R.T. Kingdom of the Seashell. HB 


7250 Abbott, R.T. Seashells of the World. SB $1.95 

7070 Abbott, R.T. Shells in Color. 112p., illus. 

Indexed fully. Hardbound $19.95 

ZP00 Aldrich & Snyder Florida Sea Shells. 122p., 

11 pis. $7.50 

7077 Allen, W.E. 1923. Exped. Calif. Acad. Sci. 

Gulf Calif. 1921. Obs. Surface Distrib. Mar. 

Diatoms Lower Calif. 1921. P.Cal.Acad.Sci., 

12:437-442 $1.25 

7456 Altena & Gittenberger Genus Babylonia. 

From Zoologische Verhandl. #188. Descriptions 

of the genus., 57p., llpls. Softbound $12. 

7110 American Malacological Union 1956-1958 

Annual Reports. $15.00 

7100 American Malacological Union 1960-1963 

Annual Reports. $20.00 

7086 American Malacological Union 1960-1965 

Annual Reports. $30.00 

7120 AMU 1955. How to Collect Shells. 1st Ed. SB 


7128 AMU 1961. How to Collect Shells. 2nd Ed.SB 


7319 Andrews, J. Shells & Shores of Texas. 24 

pages of color plates.hard binding. 365p. thisbook 

is now out of print. Hardbound $39.95 

ZP14 Angeletti, S. & C. Bevilacqua 1972. Sea 

Shells. How to identify andcollect them. 16p + 150 

color photos. HB $7.50 

7159 Annals of the Natal Museum 1969-1983. Vol. 

19-25 complete. About 400 pages per volume with 

several molluscan papers in each volume. $395.00 

7170 Archiv fur Molluskenkunde Indexes for vol. 

82, 86-88, 90-104, 106-110. $5.00 

7186 Arnett, R.H. 1981. Simon & Schuster's Guide 

to Insects. 511pp., many color illus. $8.95 

7189 Arnold, A.F. 1903. The Sea Beach at Ebb 

Tide. 1st editon. 490pp, 600+ illus. Hardbound, 

fair condition $15.00 

7210 Arrecgros, P. 1958. Coquillages marins. 

64pp., many color pis. [in French] $3.95 

7224 Atwood, W. & A. A. Johnson 1924. Marine 

Structures. Their deterioration and preservation. 

534pp., maps, tbls., illus. HB $25.00 

7629 Australian Shell News Each issue is about 

10-16 p. Includes B&W photos. Some numbersonly 

in photocopy. Each number $1.95 

7229 Axelrod, H.R. & W. Vorderwinkler 1965. 

Salt-Water Aquarium Fish. 352op., color & B&W 

illus. $12.50 

7461 Backhuys, W.Land &Freshwater Molluscsof 

the Azores. Thesis. 450p., 32pls. $44.20 

7083 Baker & Hanna 1927. MarineMollusca of the 

Order Opisthobranchiata. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., 

16(5):123-135, pi. 4. $3.10. 

Z060 Baker, F. & V.D.P. Spicer 1935. New species 

of mollusks of the genus Triphora. Trans. SDSoc. 

Nat. Hist., 8(7):35-46, pi. 5. $2.70 

7237 Baker, H.B. 1963. Type Land Snails in the 

Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 

Part II. Land Pulmonata...N of Mexico, p. 191- 

259, $6.70 

7245 Baker, Hanna & Strong 1938. Mol. Fam. 

Cerithipsidae, Cerithiidae & Cyclostrematidae 

Gulf Calif.... Proc. Cal.Acad.Sci. 23:217-244, pis. 

17-23. $5.95 

7399 Barnes Invertebrate Zoology. Excellently 

illustrated. Photos illuminate the informative 

narrative for serious students of biology and 

zoology. $19.95 









The cowrie animal and its 
habits, as well as the shells, 
is the subject of this book by 
the author of The Living 
Cowries, CM. Burgess. Over 
200 are discussed — species, 
distribution and synonymy — 
all are illustrated in full colour 
of which over 150 show the 
living animal. In addition, 
there are 18 plates showing 
significant variations within 
a species, two plates showing 
species described since 1970, 
and schematic drawings of 
conchological and anatomical 
characters of the cowries. 



Seacomber Publications 
P.O. Box 5683 
Orlando, Florida 32855 
United States of America 

I enclose herewith a cheque to the 

value of $ for 

copy(ies) fully leatherbound 

@ $300 each 

copy(ies) half leatherbound 

@ $225 each 

copy(ies) normal edition 

@ $95 each. 

Please add $8 for postage 




If a resident of the United States of 
America and you wish to order your 
copy on a credit card*, please com- 
plete the following: 
Credit Card Account No. 


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SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 



and her remote islands 
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Write P.O. Box 251 

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SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 


Schedule: Shows & Conventions 

Underwater Photography Convention Our World - Underwater xv, 

Chicago, Illinois, May 17-19 

Second Workshop on the Care and Maintenance of Natural 

History Collections Royal Ontario Museum. Canada, May 21-25 

5th International Coral Reef Congress Papeete, Tahiti, May 27- June 1 

IVeme Salon International du Coquillage Luasanne, Switzerland, June 22 
ConcholOgistS Of America Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 22-26 

Third International Congress of Systematic and Evolutionary 

Biology University of Sussex. United Kingdom, July 4-10 

Second International Cephalopod Symposium, Tubingen, Federal 

Republic of Germany, July 16 - 23 
Jacksonville Shell Show Jacksonville Beach, Florida, July 26 -28 
American MalaCOlOgical Union Kingston, Rhode Island, July 29 - August 3 
2nd International PhyCOlogical Congress Copenhagen, Denmark, August 
Western Society Of MalaCOlOgistS Santa Barbara, California, August 18-21 

The Wetlands Institute & Museum Fall Nature Show stone Harbor, 

New Jersey, September 21 - 22 
Oregon Shell Show Portland, Oregon, September 21 - 29 

Geological Society of America National Convention, Orlando, 

Florida, October, 1985 

Crown Point Shell Collectors Study Group Shell Show Southiake 

Mall, Merrillville, Indiana, October 4-6 
American Littoral Society 24th Annual Meeting Florida West Coast, October 

10- 14 
West Coast Shell Show Santa Barbara, California October 12 - 13 
North Carolina Shell Show Wilmington, North Carolina, October 26 - 27 
Western Society Of Naturalists Monterey, California, December 27 - 30 


2nd International Symposium on Indo-Pacific Marine Biology 

Guam, Truk & Ponape, Sponsored by the Western Society of Naturalists, June 22 - 
July 9 

American Malacological Union - Western Society of 

MalaCOlOgistS Joint Meeting, Monterey, California, July 2-7 

If we have missed a show or convention that you are aware of 
please excuse us, and send the information. We would especially 
like to hear of overseas shows and meetings. Thanks to Donald 
Dan for keeping us informed of many of these dates. 

SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3 119 


An invitation for you and your friends to 

discover the fascinating world of 

those who read 


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120 SHELLS and SEA LIFE — 1985 VOL. 17, NO. 3